Koopa Troopa

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"Koopa" redirects here. For other uses of the term Koopa, see Koopa (disambiguation).

The different variety of Koopa Troopa colors from Green to Yellow.

Koopas are a class of species known for their turtle-like appearance. There are many types of Koopas, the most common being Koopa Troopas, which are often simply referred to as "Koopas" for being so common. Koopas come in a variety of colors: Green, Red, Blue, and Yellow. When Koopas are stomped on, they lose their shells.

Bowser is the leader of the militaristic Koopa Troop, an organization that has attempted to conquer the peaceful Mushroom Kingdom multiple times.

After beating the special world, the koopas are replaced by shellless koopa that wear Mario mask.


About the Koopas

In Super Mario World, there are four colors of Koopa: green, red, yellow, and blue. The green and red ones were holdovers from previous games,yellow ones haven't appeared in any games since, although a lone Blue one appeared in one of the multiplayer levels of New. Super Mario Bros..

  • Green Koopas walk forward in one direction constantly and can fall off ledge edges. Only when they hit a solid object or an enemy do they turn around.
  • Red Koopas turn around when they see an edge.
  • Blue Koopas are like Red Koopas, but they move faster.
  • Yellow Koopas follow Mario around a bit. If you stomp on them, you get a coin.

Koopa Shells

Koopa Shells are shells worn as armor by Koopa Troopas. There are four colors of Koopa Shells: Green, Red, Blue, and Yellow.

In Super Mario World, the each of the four types of Koopa shells have different properties when eaten by Yoshi:

  • Green shells have no special abilities, other than normal spinning shell that can kill most enemies.
  • Red shells, when spat out by Yoshi, sends out three fireballs that resemble horizontal Podoboos.
  • Blue shell grants Yoshi the ability to fly.
  • Yellow shells allow Yoshi to have the powerful ground pound ability.
  • Kamikaze Koopa shells grant Yoshi all three powers.

All powers given to Yoshi are canceled when the shell is swallowed and/or destroyed.

After beating the special world, Koopa shells are replace into Mario masks, and retain their respective abilities.

Koopa Paratroopas

Main article: Koopa Paratroopa

Koopa Paratroopas are a variety of Koopa Troopas that possess wings and, therefore, the ability to fly. When jumped upon, they lost their wings and become regular Koopa Troopas.

Beach Koopas

Super Mario World introduced a new reaction when stomping on a Koopa Troopa; instead of the Koopa simply withdrawing in its shell like in previous games and in the New Super Mario Bros. series, it is sent out of its shell, like a cannon, and it becomes a Beach Koopa. The only other game to feature Beach Koopas are Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island and Super Mario 64, although one version of Mario is Missing featured Bowser as a Beach Koopa following a boss fight.

The advantage of this format is that you can hold Koopa shells for an unlimited amount of time, whereas with the format used in Super Mario Bros. 3 and the other games, you could only hold Koopas for a limited time before they come out of their shell to and start waling again. However, in SMW, if you hit a Koopa from the side using the cape, with extended objects 37, 38; or Direct Map16 objects 127 and 128, it will exhibit a slight twist on its old-school behavior: once it unwithdraws, it will hop out of its shell instead of withdrawing in its shell like in the other games. SMWC's Patches section has a patch that will make Koopas act like their SMB3 selves, but it hasn't been perfected yet.


Beach Koopas simply wear a white undershirt. They slowly walk towards Mario in a crouched position. They also retain their shoes and its respective color.


Initially, you can kill a Beach Koopa just by kicking it. But if given time, Beach Koopas will right themselves and start walking towards Mario, unless diverted. Beach Koopas are similar to SMB3 Goombas. They can be eaten by Yoshi.

For the most part, Beach Koopas act like their shelled counterparts, but with the following differences:

  • Green and Red Koopas walk around looking for a new shell. Once they find one, they transform into that color Koopa. So a red Koopa that hops into a yellow shell becomes a yellow Koopa.
  • Blue Koopas intercept incoming shells and can kick them back. They can also intercept Buzzy Beetle shells, Throw Blocks, and even upside-down Goombas.
  • Yellow Koopas can jump over incoming shells. When they find a shell, they become into Kamikaze Koopas, making them invincible to jumps, capes, and fireballs. They also eternally follow Mario. Kamikaze Koopas can only be killed with a spin jump, a Yoshi, and a Starman. When Kamikaze Koopas are eaten by Yoshi, they will give him all three shell powers: The ability to fly, ground pound, and spit fire.

Beach Koopas can also become Super Koopas.

Hacking Info

  • All yellow Koopas use palette A. All blue Koopas use Palette B. Red Koopas use Palette C, and green Koopas use Palette D.
  • When the level mode is set to C (horizontal dark BG level) or D (vertical dark BG level), green and red Koopas become transparent.
  • When the spotlight sprite is in a level and turned off, green and red Koopas blend into the darkness while blue and yellow ones don't.
  • The graphics for the Koopas are stored in SP1 and SP2 and at GFX00 and GFX01.
    • The fireballs that Yoshi spits from red shells are stored in SP3 and GFX13.
    • If you clear Level 125 (can be changed in LM's Overworld Editor at Overworld > Change Special World Levels), GFX31 replaces the top half of GFX01 in SP1. The credits call these creatures "Mask Koopas".
    • Also if you clear Level 125 (this can be changed, too), green Koopas become yellow and red Koopas become blue. Paratroopas don't change, though.
    • Technically, the Beach Koopas are affected by this change, too; however, GFX31 has exactly the same graphics for them.
  • Here are all the sprites for the Koopas:
    • 0: Green Beach Koopa
    • 1: Red Beach Koopa
    • 2: Blue Beach Koopa
    • 3: Yellow Beach Koopa
    • 4: Green Koopa
    • 5: Red Koopa
    • 6: Blue Koopa
    • 7: Yellow Koopa
    • 22: A green Koopa that climbs on nets vertically. Requires SP3 to be at GFX12 and can start above or below the net depending on its X position.
    • 23: Red Koopa that climbs nets vertically. Is faster than the green one.
    • 24: Green net Koopa that moves horizontally
    • 25: Red horizontal net Koopa.
    • 4C: A fake turn block that could be a green Shell-less Koopa or green regular Koopa depending on its X position. Could also be a Cheep-Cheep or a Goomba.
    • BD: A special Shell-less Koopa that can slide down slopes.
    • DA: Green shell
    • DB: Red shell
    • DC: Blue shell
    • DD: Yellow shell
    • DF: A special green shell that won't turn yellow. Also, any Koopa that climbs into it becomes a green Paratroopa.

Related Addresses

ROM Addresses
PC SNES Description
x02C76 $00:AA76 Change from 10 to 80 to disable the Koopas from using different graphics after the special world is passed.
x08A98 $01:8898 The yellow koopa's "Jump over shells" routine.
x08BED $01:89ED Tilemap of blue shell less koopa sliding out of shell.
x08ED7 $01:8CD7 Time it takes for a Red Vertical Parakoopa to turn around after reaching it's maximum/mimimum Y speed. (08)
x0981C $01:961C Sprites spawned by stomping Koopa Trooopas. (shelless Koopas)
x09888 $01:9688 What color shell makes a shelless Koopa become invincible. (00=Green; 01=Red; 02=Blue; 03=Yellow)
x098C6 $01:96C6 Change from 1A to 04 to prevent shelless Koopas from hopping out of stunned shells. (Use with AC15)
x0997C $01:977C Sprite that's spawned when a Yellow Koopa is stomped. (Coin)
x09A81 $01:9881 Koopa eye tiles when in shell. (open)
x09A89 $01:9889 Koopa eye tiles when in shell. (closed)

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